發布日期：2021-01-01 12:27:58 來源：江西中公考研}
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
“Reskilling” is something that sounds like a buzzword but is actually a requirement if we plan to have a future where a lot of would-be workers do not get left behind. We know we are moving into a period where the jobs in demand will change rapidly, as will the requirements of the jobs that remain. Research by the World Economic Forum finds that on average 42 per cent of the “core skills” within job roles will change by 2022. That is a very short timeline.
The question of who should pay for reskilling is a thorny one. For individual companies, the temptation is always to let go of workers whose skills are no longer in demand and replace them with those whose skills are. That does not always happen. AT&T is often given as the gold standard of a company that decided to do a massive reskilling program rather than go with a fire-and-hire strategy. Other companies had also pledged to create their own plans. When the skills mismatch is in the broader economy, though, the focus usually turns to government to handle. Efforts in Canada and elsewhere have been arguably languid at best, and have given us a situation where we frequently hear of employers begging for workers, even at times and in regions where unemployment is high.
With the pandemic, unemployment is very high indeed. In February, at 3.5 per cent and 5.5 per cent respectively, unemployment rates in Canada and the United States were at generational lows and worker shortages were everywhere. As of May, those rates had spiked up to 13.3 per cent and 13.7 per cent, and although many worker shortages had disappeared, not all had done so. In the medical field, to take an obvious example, the pandemic meant that there were still clear shortages of doctors, nurses and other medical personnel.
Of course, it is not like you can take an unemployed waiter and train him to be a doctor in a few weeks. But even if you cannot close that gap, maybe you can close others, and doing so would be to the benefit of all concerned. That seems to be the case in Sweden: When forced to furlough 90 per cent of their cabin staff, Scandinavian Airlines decided to start up a short retraining program that reskilled the laid-off workers to support hospital staff. The effort was a collective one and involved other companies as well as a Swedish university.
21. Research by the World Economic Forum suggests ______.
A. a controversy about the “core skills”
B. an increase in full-time employment
C. an urgent demand for new job skills
D. a steady growth of job opportunities
22. AT&T is cited to show ______.
A. an immediate need for government support
B. an alternative to the fire-and-hire strategy
C. the characteristics of reskilling programs
D. the importance of staff appraisal standards
23. Efforts to resolve the skills mismatch in Canada ______.
A. have appeared to be insufficient
B. have driven up labour costs
C. have proved to be inconsistent
D. have met with fierce opposition
24. We can learn from Paragraph 3 that there was ______.
A. a sign of economic recovery
B. a call for policy adjustment
C. a change in hiring practices
D. a lack of medical workers
25. Scandinavian Airlines decided to ______.
A. create job vacancies for the unemployed
B. retrain their cabin staff for better services
C. prepare their laid-off workers for other jobs
D. finance their staff’s college education
Section II Reading Comprehension
21.【答案】C(an urgent demand for new job skills)
【解析】本題為細節題。根據題干關鍵詞Research by the World Economic Forum定位到第一段③句，由42 per cent of the “core skills” within job roles will change可知大量工作“核心技能”將發生變化。C項an urgent demand for new job skills(對新工作技能的迫切需求)符合題意。所以本題選C。
22.【答案】B(an alternative to the fire-and-hire strategy)
【解析】本題為例證題。根據題干關鍵詞AT&T定位到第二段④句：AT&T is often given as the gold standard of a company that decided to do a massive reskilling program rather than go with a fire-and-hire strategy。B項an alternative to the fire-and-hire strategy(解雇和雇傭策略的替代方案)是對rather than go with a fire-and-hire strategy(而不是推行解雇和雇傭策略)的同義替換。所以本題選B。
23.【答案】A(have appeared to be insufficient)
【解析】本題為細節題。根據題干關鍵詞skills mismatch、Canada定位到第二段⑦句：Efforts in Canada and elsewhere have been arguably languid at best, and have given us a situation where we frequently hear of employers begging for workers, even at times and in regions where unemployment is high。A項have appeared to be insufficient(似乎不夠)是對⑦句中languid(虛弱無力的)，以及“employers begging for workers VS unemployment is high(雇主缺人VS失業率高)”這一困境的合理概括。所以本題選A。
24.【答案】D(a lack of medical workers)
【解析】本題為細節題。根據題干Paragraph 3定位到第三段。本段①句是論點“疫情期間失業率很高”。②③句是數據論據;④句是事例論據，以醫療領域為例，證明人員的緊缺。D項a lack of medical workers(醫療工作者短缺)對應④句there were still clear shortages of doctors, nurses and other medical personnel。所以本題選D。
25.【答案】C(prepare their laid-off workers for other jobs)
【解析】本題為細節題。根據題干關鍵詞Scandinavian Airlines decided to定位到第四段③句Scandinavian Airlines decided to start up a short retraining program that reskilled the laid-off workers to support hospital staff。C項prepare their laid-off workers for other jobs(幫助他們的失業員工為其它工作做準備)對應③句reskilled the laid-off workers to support hospital staff。所以本題選C。